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Bibliography Harvard Apa Referencing

Our citation generator is great for automatically compiling your bibliographies, but it's still important you know the process of creating a bibliography manually, and the reasons why citing your sources is necessary.

For these reasons we have prepared the following set of guides to assist you:

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  • American Chemical Society (page-first) style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, no "et al.") style
  • American Journal of Surgical Pathology style
  • American Medical Association style
  • ACS Nano style
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica style
  • Administrative Science Quarterly style
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia style
  • Annual Reviews (author-date) style
  • Archaeometry style
  • Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie style
  • American Physiological Society style
  • Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales (French) style
  • Annals of Oncology style
  • Acta Ophthalmologica style
  • Ameghiniana style
  • American Political Science Association style
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers style
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition style
  • Annals of the Association of American Geographers style
  • Acta Materialia style
  • American Chemical Society (author-date) style
  • Aquatic Living Resources style
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics style
  • ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) style
  • Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Journal of Plant Sciences style
  • Association for Computational Linguistics - Conference Proceedings style
  • American Mineralogist style
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta style
  • Annals of Botany style
  • Antiquity style
  • BioMed Research International style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Turkish) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (note, Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • ANPET - Congresso de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Ausonius Éditions (French) style
  • Austrian Legal (German - Austria) style
  • Bioinformatics style
  • Annals of Biomedical Engineering style
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering style
  • Campus adventiste du Salève - Faculté adventiste de théologie (French) style
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences style
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, German) style
  • Annual Review of Medicine style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Provost) (French - Canada) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Avian Diseases style
  • Babes-Bolyai University - Faculty of Orthodox Theology (Romanian) style
  • Applied Spectroscopy style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 3+ authors) style
  • Bluebook Inline style
  • BMJ style
  • Acta Polytechnica style
  • Alternatives to Animal Experimentation style
  • British Journal of Cancer style
  • Arachne style
  • Archéologie médiévale (French) style
  • Acta Philosophica style
  • Advances in Alzheimer's Disease style
  • American Chemical Society style
  • AMBIO style
  • American Journal of Political Science style
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases style
  • American Fisheries Society style
  • Cerebral Cortex style
  • Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (Spanish) style
  • American Geophysical Union style
  • American Journal of Clinical Pathology style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Sequence (numeric) style
  • Conservation Letters style
  • Academy of Management Review style
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine style
  • Endocrine Press style
  • Environmental Conservation style
  • Aging Cell style
  • Annals of Neurology style
  • Anticancer Research style
  • ergoscience style
  • European Journal of Soil Science style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics style
  • Evolution & Development style
  • Avian Pathology style
  • Biochemistry style
  • Brain style
  • Canadian Public Policy style
  • American Journal of Primatology style
  • Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering style
  • Conservation Physiology style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (library list) style
  • Copernicus Publications style
  • American Phytopathological Society style
  • American Physics Society style
  • Elsevier Vancouver style
  • Forensic Science Review style
  • Freshwater Science style
  • American Society for Microbiology style
  • Gastroenterology style
  • Genome Biology and Evolution style
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (Russian) style
  • Coventry University - Harvard style
  • Annals of Applied Biology style
  • Art History style
  • BioEssays style
  • Acta Neurochirurgica style
  • Advances in Complex Systems style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles) style
  • American Heart Association style
  • American Journal of Epidemiology style
  • Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae style
  • American Anthropological Association style
  • American Journal of Archaeology style
  • American Medical Association (sorted alphabetically) style
  • American Journal of Neuroradiology style
  • American Sociological Association style
  • Acta Pharmaceutica style
  • Cellular Reprogramming style
  • African Zoology style
  • AIDS style
  • Anesthesiology style
  • Antarctic Science style
  • Coral Reefs style
  • Corrosion style
  • American Journal of Health Behavior style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Spanish/Español) style
  • Asian Studies Review style
  • Ecosystems style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Biochemical Journal style
  • Biophysical Journal style
  • Equine Veterinary Education style
  • American Psychological Association 5th edition style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (single-spaced bibliography) style
  • Equine Veterinary Journal style
  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies style
  • Fish and Fisheries style
  • Free Radical Research style
  • Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften (Heilmann) (German) style
  • Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note) style
  • Genèses: Sciences sociales et histoire (French) style
  • Global Ecology and Biogeography style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note) style
  • Clays and Clay Minerals style
  • Deutsches Archäologisches Institut style
  • DIN 1505-2 (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Ecological Entomology style
  • Emerald journals (Harvard) style
  • European Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Harvard - Anglia Ruskin University style
  • Harvard - Cardiff University style
  • Harvard style
  • Harvard - City University London style
  • Harvard - Durham University Business School style
  • Harvard - Gesellschaft für Bildung und Forschung in Europa (German) style
  • Health Policy and Planning style
  • Harvard - Institut für Praxisforschung (Bahr & Frackmann) (German) style
  • Histoire@Politique. Politique, culture, société (French) style
  • Harvard - Leeds Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - University of Cape Town style
  • Harvard - University of Kent style
  • Insectes Sociaux style
  • International Journal of Epidemiology style
  • American Medical Association (no URL) style
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology style
  • Harvard - University of Leeds style
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica style
  • International Union of Crystallography journals style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Czech) style
  • American Meteorological Society style
  • Israel Medical Association Journal style
  • American Society of Civil Engineers style
  • Jahrbuch für evangelikale Theologie (German) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (no DOIs, no issue numbers) style
  • Arachnology style
  • American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America style
  • Body & Society style
  • British Journal of Anaesthesia style
  • Advanced Engineering Materials style
  • British Journal of Dermatology style
  • Advanced Materials style
  • BibTeX generic citation style style
  • Biological Journal of the Linnean Society style
  • Biological Reviews style
  • American Association for Cancer Research style
  • British Journal of Haematology style
  • Bluebook Law Review style
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, page-first) style
  • Brazilian Journal of Botany style
  • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics style
  • Cell Transplantation style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (annotated bibliography with abstract) style
  • Critical Care Medicine style
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria completa. Exemplo: MENDES, José) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Journal of Agricultural Economics style
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (German) style
  • American Journal of Botany style
  • Association for Computing Machinery style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (note, German) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, annotated bibliography) style
  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation style
  • Drug Testing and Analysis style
  • American Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Bioelectromagnetics style
  • Early Medieval Europe style
  • American Veterinary Medical Association style
  • Ekonomie a Management (Czech) style
  • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (curriculum vitae, sorted by descending date) style
  • Elsevier Harvard (with titles) style
  • FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) style
  • Blood style
  • Bluebook Law Review (2) style
  • France (auteurs et al., auteur-date, French) style
  • G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (French/Français) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Italian/Italiano) style
  • British Ecological Society style
  • Geopolitics style
  • Harvard - AGPS (Australia) style
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation style
  • Harvard - Imperial College London style
  • British Journal of Pharmacology style
  • Australian Journal of Earth Sciences style
  • Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française (French) style
  • Harvard - London South Bank University style
  • Cell journals (numeric) style
  • Cell Research style
  • Centaurus style
  • Chicago style
  • Harvard - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Spanish) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, no Ibid.) style
  • Circulation style
  • Council of Science Editors, Name-Year (author-date) style
  • Harvard - University of Greenwich style
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics style
  • Currents in Biblical Research style
  • Harvard - University of Limerick style
  • Harvard - The University of Melbourne style
  • Harvard - University of the West of England (Bristol) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (in-text, German) style
  • Hong Kong Journal of Radiology style
  • Elsevier Harvard (without titles) style
  • Clio Medica style
  • Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German) style
  • Human-Wildlife Interactions style
  • Environmental & Engineering Geoscience style
  • European Retail Research style
  • Environmental Microbiology style
  • First Monday style
  • French Politics style
  • IICA-CATIE (Spanish) style
  • International Journal of Humanoid Robotics style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (numeric) style
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry style
  • International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics style
  • Harvard - North-West University style
  • International Journal of Sport Medicine style
  • Future Science Group style
  • Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Proceedings style
  • Geoarchaeology style
  • Grasas y Aceites style
  • Inter-Research Science Center style
  • Harvard - Bath University style
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (German) style
  • Harvard - Newcastle University style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, English) style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - School of East Asian Studies style
  • Human Pathology style
  • Interaction Design & Architecture(s) style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Spanish) style
  • Harvard - University of Wolverhampton style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - Town and Regional Planning style
  • International Journal of Electronic Commerce style
  • Heart Rhythm style
  • INTER: Romanian Review for Theological and Religious Studies style
  • International Studies Association style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, French) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, Lithuanian) style
  • Journal of Information Technology style
  • Cytometry style
  • Elsevier Harvard 2 style
  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy style
  • Elsevier (numeric, without titles) style
  • Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering style
  • Journal of Dental Research style
  • European Journal of Emergency Medicine style
  • Journal of Marketing style
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Research style
  • European Journal of Immunology style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-1987 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Clinical Nuclear Medicine style
  • CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets style
  • Journal for the History of Astronomy style
  • Current Proteomics style
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research style
  • Disability and Rehabilitation style
  • European Journal of Neuroscience style
  • Journal of Fish Diseases style
  • Journal of Internal Medicine style
  • Journal of Management Information Systems style
  • Drugs of Today style
  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean style
  • El profesional de la información (Spanish) style
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma style
  • Environmental Health Perspectives style
  • Journal of Paleontology style
  • European Respiratory Journal style
  • Journal of Roman Archaeology (A) style
  • Sascha Foerster - Geisteswissenschaft (German) style
  • Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery style
  • Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Frontiers journals style
  • Frontiers in Physics style
  • Language in Society style
  • Les Journées de la Recherche Porcine (French) style
  • Limnology and Oceanography style
  • France (tous les auteurs, auteur-date, French) style
  • Genetics style
  • Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies style
  • Chemical Senses style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (figures and illustrations) style
  • Clay Minerals style
  • Collection du Centre Jean-Bérard (French) style
  • Cuadernos de Filología Clásica. Estudios Griegos e Indoeuropeos (autor-año, Spanish) style
  • Current Opinion journals style
  • Épidémiologie et Santé Animale style
  • HAND style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University style
  • European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide style
  • London South Bank University (numeric) style
  • Manuel canadien de la référence juridique 7e édition (Guide McGill, French - Canada) style
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis style
  • Harvard - University of West London style
  • Biotropica style
  • British Journal of Political Science style
  • British Journal of Surgery style
  • BYZANTINA SYMMEIKTA style
  • Middle East Critique style
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press style
  • De Buck (Dutch) style
  • Ecology Letters style
  • Emu - Austral Ornithology style
  • Entomological Society of America style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings style
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases style
  • European Journal of Information Systems style
  • Evolutionary Anthropology style
  • Frontiers in Optics style
  • Gallia (French) style
  • Genes to Cells style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings - Extended Abstract Format style
  • Global Change Biology style
  • Harvard - Staffordshire University style
  • Histoire & Mesure (French) style
  • Human Brain Mapping style
  • Human Mutation style
  • International Journal of Audiology style
  • Infoclio (German - Switzerland) style
  • Information Systems Research style
  • Institute of Physics (numeric) style
  • International Microbiology style
  • Invertebrate Systematics style
  • Acta Naturae style
  • Acta Palaeontologica Polonica style
  • ISO-690 (note, without bibliography, Czech) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, brackets, Czech) style
  • Briefings in Bioinformatics style
  • Journal of Applied Philosophy style
  • Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties style
  • ACM SIGGRAPH style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 15+ authors) style
  • Invertebrate Biology style
  • Advanced Functional Materials style
  • Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) (Swedish) style
  • Journal of Hearing Science style
  • Journal of Morphology style
  • British Journal of Industrial Relations style
  • Allergy style
  • American Institute of Physics style
  • Journal of Petrology style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Université de Montréal) (French - Canada) style
  • Journal of Simulation style
  • Australian Historical Studies style
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - School of Computer Science and Communication style
  • Biochemical Society Transactions style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, sentence case) style
  • Catholic Biblical Association (full note) style
  • Harvard - University of Technology, Sydney style
  • Biological Psychiatry style
  • History of the Human Sciences style
  • BioMed Central style
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection style
  • International Labour Organization style
  • Drug Development Research style
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research style
  • Journal of Applied Ecology style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Name (numeric, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Decision Sciences style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles) style
  • Journal of European Public Policy style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, German) style
  • Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien style
  • Journal of Field Ornithology style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, sorted alphabetically, German) style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Slovak) style
  • Journal of Food Protection style
  • DNA Research style
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms style
  • Harvard - Cranfield University style
  • Journal of Molecular Endocrinology style
  • Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research style
  • Ecology style
  • Environment and Planning style
  • European Cells & Materials style
  • Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists style
  • European Journal of Ophthalmology style
  • Freie Universität Berlin - Geographische Wissenschaften (German) style
  • Juristische Zitierweise (Stüber) (German) style
  • Kidney International style
  • Harvard - Cape Peninsula University of Technology style
  • Harvard - European Archaeology style
  • Magnetic Resonance in Medicine style
  • Harvard (German/Deutsch) style
  • Health Services Research style
  • Hepatology style
  • IEEE style
  • Media, Culture & Society style
  • History and Theory style
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition style
  • Mutagenesis style
  • Hydrobiologia style
  • International Journal of Cancer style
  • Permafrost and Periglacial Processes style
  • Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft style
  • International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health style
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, French) style
  • Arzneimitteltherapie style
  • ISO-690 (note, no abstract, French) style
  • Journalistica (Danish) style
  • Journal of Atrial Fibrillation style
  • Indoor Air style
  • InVisu (French) style
  • Journal of Avian Biology style
  • Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie style
  • Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia style
  • Journal of Applied Animal Science style
  • Journal of Common Market Studies style
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry style
  • Journal of Chemical Ecology style
  • Journal of Hypertension style
  • Journal of Integrated OMICS style
  • Journal of Combinatorics style
  • Journal of Alzheimer's Disease style
  • American Medical Association (no "et al.") style
  • Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering style
  • Journal of Veterinary Cardiology style
  • American Phytopathological Society (numeric) style
  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science style
  • Landes Bioscience Journals style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Journal of the American Water Resources Association style
  • Latin American Perspectives style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance, without titles) style
  • Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis style
  • Law & Society Review style
  • Le Mouvement Social (French) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition style
  • Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems style
  • Liver International style
  • Journal of Glaciology style
  • Austral Ecology style
  • Biometrics style
  • Guide des références pour la rédaction juridique 7e édition (Guide Lluelles, French - Canada) style
  • Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Moorlands College style
  • Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research style
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, no abstract, French) style
  • Methods in Ecology and Evolution style
  • Nature style
  • Nature (no superscript) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note, no Ibid.) style
  • National Science Foundation (grant proposals) style
  • Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry style
  • New Zealand Plant Protection style
  • DIN 1505-2 (author-date, German) style
  • Diplo style
  • Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition style
  • Neurology India style
  • New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide style
  • Northeastern Naturalist style
  • Écoscience style
  • Environmental Chemistry style
  • Organization style
  • Oxford Art Journal style
  • European Society of Cardiology style
  • Oral Diseases style
  • Oxford Centre for Mission Studies (Harvard) style
  • Journal of Human Evolution style
  • Pediatric Research style
  • Evolution style
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal style
  • Phyllomedusa style
  • Plant Biology style
  • Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy style
  • Microbial Drug Resistance style
  • Parasitology style
  • Protein Science style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria abreviada. Exemplo: MENDES, J.) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Journal of Lipid Research style
  • Free Radical Biology & Medicine style
  • Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions style
  • Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences style
  • Frontiers medical journals style
  • Molecular Therapy style
  • Reviews of Modern Physics (with titles) style
  • Harvard - King's College London style
  • Nature (no "et al.") style
  • New Phytologist style
  • Revista Virtual de Química (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Harvard - University of Birmingham style
  • New Solutions style
  • Nucleic Acids Research style
  • Human Resource Management Journal style
  • Revue archéologique du Centre de la France (French) style
  • Palaeontologia Electronica style
  • Immunological Reviews style
  • Psychiatry Research style
  • Infoclio (petites majuscules, French) style
  • Australian Veterinary Journal style
  • Science style
  • Small style
  • Javnost - The Public style
  • International Conference on Information Systems Development style
  • Society for General Microbiology style
  • Journal of Analytical Toxicology style
  • Journal of Archaeological Research style
  • Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society style
  • RadioGraphics style
  • Springer Physics (author-date) style
  • Sociology of Health & Illness style
  • Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology style
  • Journal of Pollination Ecology style
  • Journal of Management style
  • Journal of Visualized Experiments style
  • Studia BAS (Polish) style
  • The American Naturalist style
  • Karger journals (author-date) style
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - School of Computer Science and Communication (Swedish) style
  • Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (German) style
  • LexisNexis Québec (Guide Lluelles modifié, French - Canada) style
  • Journal of Medical Internet Research style
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta style
  • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise style
  • Journal of Neurotrauma style
  • Fertility and Sterility style
  • France (tous les auteurs, numérotation, French) style
  • Freshwater Biology style
  • Korean Journal of Anesthesiology style
  • Harvard Reference format 7 (author-date, German) style
  • Bournemouth University - Harvard style
  • The British Journal of Cardiology style
  • Métropolitiques (French) style
  • Moore Theological College style
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen - Institut für Ethnologie und Ethnologische Sammlung (German) style
  • Harvard - University of Abertay Dundee style
  • New Zealand Veterinary Journal style
  • Leviathan (German) style
  • Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute style

Harvard Format Citation Guide

This is a complete guide to Harvard in-text and reference list citations.This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. Check out our other citation guides on APA and MLA 8 referencing.

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1. Harvard Referencing Basics: Reference List

A reference list is a complete list of all the sources used when creating a piece of work. This list includes information about the sources like the author, date of publication, title of the source and more. A Harvard reference list must:

  • Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document

  • Be organised alphabetically by author, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source title, excluding articles such as a, an or the

    • If there are multiple works by the same author these are ordered by date, if the works are in the same year they are ordered alphabetically by the title and are allocated a letter (a,b,c etc) after the date

  • Be double spaced: there should be a full, blank line of space between each line of text

  • Contain full references for all in-text references used

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2. Harvard Referencing Basics: In-Text

In-text references must be included following the use of a quote or paraphrase taken from another piece of work.

In-text references are references written within the main body of text and refer to a quote or paraphrase. They are much shorter than full references. The full reference of in-text citations appears in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, in-text citations contain the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s surname, year of publication and page number(s). Using an example author James Mitchell, this takes the form:

Mitchell (2017, p. 189) states.. Or (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

(Note: p. refers to a single page, pp. refers to a range of pages)

Two or Three Authors:

When citing a source with two or three authors, state all surnames like so:

Mitchell, Smith and Thomson (2017, p. 189) states… Or

(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)

Four or More Authors:

In this case, the first author’s surname should be stated followed by ‘et al’:

Mitchell et al (2017, p. 189) states… Or (Mitchell et al, 2017, p, 189)

No Author:

If possible, use the organisation responsible for the post in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics:

(A guide to citation, 2017, pp. 189-201)

Multiple Works From the Same Author in the Same Year:

If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c etc) after the year. This allocation is done in the reference list so is done alphabetically according to the author's surname and source title:

(Mitchell, 2017a, p. 189) or Mitchell (2017b, p. 189)

Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

List the in-text citations in the normal way but with semicolons between different references:

(Mitchell, 2017, p. 189; Smith, 200; Andrews, 1989, pp. 165-176)

Citing Different Editions of the Same Work in One Parentheses:

Include the author(s)’s name only once followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:

Mitchell (2010; 2017) states… Or (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)

Citing a Reference With No Date:

In this case simply state ‘no date’ in place of the year: (Mitchell, no date, p. 189).

Citing a Secondary Source:

In this case, state the reference you used first followed by ‘cited in’ and the original author:

Smith 2000 (cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) or (Smith, 2000, cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189)

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3. How to Cite Different Source Types

  • In-text citations remain quite constant across source types, unless mentioned explicitly, assume the in-text citation uses the rules stated above

  • Reference list references vary quite a lot between sources.

How to Cite a Book in Harvard Format

Book referencing is the simplest format in Harvard referencing style. The basic format is as follows:

Book Referencing Example:

Mitchell, J.A. and Thomson, M. (2017) A guide to citation.3rd edn. London: London Publishings.

How to Cite an Edited Book in Harvard Format

Edited books are collations of chapters written by different authors. Their reference format is very similar to the book reference except instead of the author name, the editor name is used followed by (eds.) to distinguish them as an editor. The basic format is:

Editor surname(s), initial(s). (eds.) (Year Published). Title. Edition. Place of

publication: publishers

Edited Book Example:

William, S.T. (eds.) (2015) Referencing: a guide to citation rules. New York: My Publisher

How to Cite a Chapter in an Edited Book in Harvard Format

For citing chapters, you need to add the chapter author and chapter title to the reference. The basic format is as follows:

Chapter in an Edited Book Example:

Troy B.N. (2015) ‘Harvard citation rules’ in Williams, S.T. (ed.) A guide to citation rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp. 34-89.

In-Text Citations: Chapter in an Edited Book

Use the chapter author surname, not the editor.

How to Cite an E-Book in Harvard Format

To reference an e-book, information about its collection, location online and the date it was accessed are needed as well as author name, title and year of publishing:

If the e-book is accessed via an e-book reader the reference format changes slightly:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year Published). Title. Edition. E-book format [e-book reader]. Available at URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

This includes information about the e-book format and reader, for instance this could be ‘Kindle e-book [e-book reader]’.

E-Book Example:

Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. and Coyne, R.P. (2017) A guide to citation. E-book library [online]. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 10 September 2016)

How to Cite a Journal Article in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a journal article is:

Journal Article Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9), p70-81.

Journal Article Online Example

Mitchell, J.A. ‘How citation changed the research world’, The Mendeley, 62(9) [online]. Available at:  https://www.mendeley.com/reference-management/reference-manager (Accessed: 15 November 2016)

How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

Citing a newspaper article is similar to citing a journal article except, instead of the volume and issue number, the edition and date of publication are needed:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month,

page number(s).

Note: edition is used only where applicable.

Newspaper Article Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) ‘Changes to citation formats shake the research world’, The Mendeley Telegraph (Weekend edition), 6 July, pp.9-12.

How to Cite an Online Journal or Newspaper Article in Harvard Format

To cite an online journal or newspaper article, the page numbers section from the print journal or newspaper reference is swapped with the URL or DOI the article can be accessed from and when it was accessed. So the reference for an online journal article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of article’,  Title of journal, volume(issue/season) [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

And the reference for an online newspaper article is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: day month year)

How to Cite Non-Print Material in Harvard Format

How to Cite an Online Photograph in Harvard Format

The basic format is as follows:

Photograph surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Online Photograph Example:

Millais, J.E. (1851-1852) Ophelia [online]. Available at: www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/millais-ophelia-n01506 (Accessed: 21 June 2014)

How to Cite a Film in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a film is:

Film Example:

Rear Window (1954) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures.

How to Cite a TV Programme in Harvard Format

The basic format for citing a TV programme is as follows:

TV Programme Example:

‘Fly’ (2010) Breaking Bad, Series 2, episode 10. AMC, 23 May 2010.

How to Cite Music in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite an album is as follows:

Music Example:

Beyonce (2016) Lemonade [Visual Album] New York: Parkwood Records. Available at: https://www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/ (Accessed: 17 February 2016).

How to Cite a Website in Harvard Format

The basic format to cite a website is:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year of publishing)  Title of page/site [Online[. Available at: URL (Accessed: day month year)

Website Example:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017) How and when to reference [Online]. Available at: https://www.howandwhentoreference.com/ (Accessed: 27 May 2017)

To learn more about citing a web page and entire websites in APA, MLA or Harvard check out How to Cite a Website post.

For a summary of all the references for each source type along with examples take a look at our Ultimate Citation Cheat Sheet. It also contains examples for MLA 8 and APA formats.

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